This article provides designers with information on three critical technologies: protection, control, and sensing, for developing an electric water heater robust to external overloads, transients, and ESD. The components representing these technologies will help create a safe, efficient, long-life water heater that safely controls water temperature. By using the recommended components, design engineers will achieve the goal of developing high-quality, reliable, smart water heaters.
Smart thermostats have become a popular method of energy conservation for homes, office buildings, and retail facilities. The market for smart thermostats has been growing at a high CAGR of 22% since 2018. With such high growth, manufacturers can easily justify innovation in new models. Future smart thermostats will provide a wide range of information, including energy usage audits and comparative data on energy consumption before and after an HVAC system upgrade.
The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) market is growing at a 6% compound annual growth rate as annual shipments of AC systems are expected to grow from 110 million units in 2020 to 140 million units in 2024.1 Large commercial systems will have the highest growth rate resulting from the construction of new healthcare, education, warehouse, government office, and retail facilities.
Heat pumps perform both heating and air conditioning and are all-electric systems. Unlike a fossil fuel heating system, heat pumps do not convert combustible fuel into heat energy. Thus, heat pumps are another tool in the global effort to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and minimize the potentially catastrophic effects of climate change on the planet. Over 80 countries have endorsed the Net-Zero Emissions (NZE) initiative, which requires a 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 and net-zero emissions by 2050.